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TSMC Company Will Keep Its Roots in Taiwan

TSMC Company Will Keep Its Roots in Taiwan

The Diplomacy of Semiconductors: TSMC’s Global Expansion and the Geopolitical Game

In the heart of the ever-escalating geopolitical tensions in the Asia-Pacific region, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) quietly but significantly plays a role that goes beyond the realm of technology. TSMC, responsible for manufacturing the world’s most advanced microchips, conducts its business on the island of Taiwan, which is strategically positioned just 80 miles off the coast of China. This proximity has sparked concerns in Washington, as TSMC has established itself as an industry leader that the United States can’t afford to be without.

TSMC’s Dominance

TSMC’s significance in the semiconductor industry cannot be overstated. It’s a company that plays a pivotal role in ensuring the supply of microchips, which are the backbone of modern technology, including smartphones, airplanes, supercomputers, and more. The United States recognizes its dependency on TSMC, which raises concerns given the sensitive political situation in the region.

The U.S. Response

In response to these concerns, the U.S. government has allocated tens of billions of dollars to bolster its domestic semiconductor sector. Additionally, it has taken steps to encourage TSMC’s expansion within the United States, far from the potential geopolitical turmoil in Taiwan. This initiative is part of a strategy to reduce America’s reliance on chips produced in Taiwan.

TSMC’s Expansion

TSMC has embarked on a significant global expansion endeavor. The company is currently constructing two new factories in the United States and one in Japan. There are also discussions about the possibility of establishing a facility in Germany. These moves are part of the company’s efforts to address the calls from U.S. officials to diversify chip production locations.

Mark Liu: The Diplomat-Scientist-Executive

At the forefront of TSMC’s global initiatives is Mark Liu, the company’s Chairman. Liu, who holds a doctoral degree in electronic engineering and computer science, joined TSMC three decades ago after stints at Intel and Bell Labs. Today, he leads the $500 billion company, making him as much a diplomat as a scientist and an executive.

Liu’s Diplomatic Role

Liu maintains a regular presence in the United States, visiting approximately every three months. His efforts to establish TSMC’s production facilities in the U.S. contributed to the creation of the CHIPS and Science Act, a program designed to expand the U.S. semiconductor industry. The dominance of TSMC in the industry leaves the United States without a clear alternative if any issues arise in Taiwan.

TSMC’s Invaluable Role

TSMC’s unique capabilities and infrastructure in Taiwan are a testament to the company’s strength. The development and production of cutting-edge chips at an efficient pace require a substantial workforce of research scientists. Replicating this setup anywhere else is exceedingly challenging. As Liu puts it, “We cannot put it anyplace else.”

The High-Stakes Game

TSMC’s commitment to maintaining its technological lead in the semiconductor industry is evident in its stringent internal security measures and work environment that resemble a government research facility more than a typical tech campus. Any disruption in the production of TSMC microchips, which predominantly occurs in Taiwan, could have far-reaching consequences for the technology industry and the global economy.

The Geopolitical Pressures

The United States, along with its trade allies, has urged TSMC to establish production facilities outside Taiwan. China, on the other hand, has invested substantial resources to compete with TSMC, resorting to tactics such as hacking and intellectual property theft. The 2020 incident where TSMC ceased orders from the Chinese tech giant Huawei, one of its significant customers at the time, highlights the intricate geopolitical dance TSMC is involved in.

The “Silicon Shield” Misconception

There’s a misconception that Taiwan’s prowess in chip manufacturing serves as a deterrent against military action by China and garners support from the United States. However, Mr. Liu dispels this notion, emphasizing that the outcome depends on the U.S. and China’s decisions and not on semiconductors.

TSMC’s U.S. Investment

TSMC has committed to a $40 billion investment in Arizona, where it plans to build two factories to produce chips that are one or two generations behind its most advanced products. The construction process has faced challenges, with a delayed expected start date in 2025 and tensions arising from cultural differences between Taiwanese and American workers.

Challenges and Solutions

One challenge TSMC faces is whether American companies will be willing to pay the likely premium required for chips made in Arizona. Liu believes that additional incentives beyond the CHIPS Act’s $52 billion in subsidies will be necessary to encourage American companies to buy American-made chips.

A Collaborative Approach

TSMC’s cooperation with the U.S. government extends beyond just securing the supply chain. The company’s willingness to invest in the U.S. aligns with the need to catalyze the American semiconductor industry and address the unique needs of American customers.


TSMC’s role in the global semiconductor industry is paramount, and its expansion into the United States and other countries reflects the complex interplay between technology, geopolitics, and economics. The company’s leadership, under Mark Liu, bridges the gap between science, diplomacy, and business, creating a pathway towards maintaining a stable supply of advanced microchips.


1.Why is TSMC important in the semiconductor industry?
TSMC is a dominant force in semiconductor manufacturing, producing cutting-edge chips used in various electronic devices, making it crucial to the tech industry’s supply chain.

2.What challenges does TSMC face in expanding its operations to the U.S.?
Challenges include cultural differences between Taiwanese and American workers, high costs, and uncertainties about American companies’ willingness to pay for chips made in the U.S.

3.Why is Taiwan’s role in chip manufacturing not a guaranteed deterrent against Chinese military action?
The outcome depends on the decisions of the U.S. and China rather than semiconductors, as emphasized by TSMC’s Chairman, Mark Liu.

4.What is the significance of the CHIPS Act in the semiconductor industry?
The CHIPS Act is a U.S. government program aimed at expanding the domestic semiconductor industry and encouraging companies like TSMC to establish production facilities in the United States.

5.How does TSMC’s global expansion affect the geopolitics of the semiconductor industry?
TSMC’s expansion is a response to geopolitical pressures, aiming to reduce the reliance on chips made in Taiwan, thereby ensuring a stable supply of microchips globally.


> The Global Impact of TSMC’s Expansion

TSMC’s expansion reflects the interconnected nature of the global tech industry. With a focus on reducing risk and ensuring a consistent supply of microchips, the company’s global presence has profound implications for various stakeholders.

1. Supply Chain Security

TSMC’s global expansion is part of a broader effort to enhance supply chain security. With factories in multiple countries, there is a reduced risk of disruption due to geopolitical tensions in any one region. This is particularly crucial in an era marked by trade disputes and political instability.

2. Strengthening U.S. Semiconductor Industry

The United States’ push to bring TSMC’s operations to American soil aims to bolster its domestic semiconductor industry. It’s not just about securing a steady supply of chips but also about fostering innovation and technological advancement within the country.

3. Economic Diplomacy

Mark Liu’s role as both a scientist and diplomat is emblematic of the era where technology and diplomacy intertwine. TSMC’s global operations require navigating complex geopolitical relations and fostering diplomatic ties. The company’s collaborative approach with U.S. officials showcases how economic interests can drive international diplomacy.

4. Promoting Technological Advancement

TSMC’s decision to invest in facilities producing slightly older chip generations in the U.S. isn’t just a temporary fix; it’s a long-term strategy. These facilities will contribute to technology innovation, research, and development, ensuring that the United States remains at the forefront of semiconductor technology.

5. Geopolitical Uncertainty

While TSMC’s expansion mitigates some risks, the semiconductor industry remains susceptible to geopolitical uncertainty. Ongoing tensions between superpowers, the delicate relationship between the U.S. and China, and Taiwan’s unique position all add layers of complexity to the industry’s future.

In conclusion, TSMC’s journey from a Taiwanese chip manufacturer to a global semiconductor powerhouse illustrates the intricate interplay of technology, diplomacy, and economics. As the company navigates the challenges of expansion, it’s clear that the global demand for microchips goes far beyond satisfying the tech industry. It influences the balance of power, the stability of economies, and the future of innovation.

TSMC’s diplomatic endeavors, led by Mark Liu, exemplify the symbiotic relationship between technology and geopolitics, where the quest for technological advancement transcends borders and has a profound impact on the world stage.

To stay updated on the latest developments in the semiconductor industry and understand how TSMC’s expansion continues to shape global dynamics, keep an eye on this evolving story.

FAQs (Continued)

6.How does TSMC’s expansion affect its competitiveness in the semiconductor industry?
TSMC’s expansion not only ensures a diversified supply chain but also positions the company to remain competitive by advancing technology and fostering innovation.

7.What role does diplomacy play in TSMC’s global expansion strategy?
Diplomacy is a crucial aspect of TSMC’s expansion, as it involves fostering relationships with governments and international organizations to ensure smooth operations in various countries.

8.What are the potential risks TSMC faces with its global expansion?
Risks include geopolitical tensions, operational challenges, and potential resistance from American companies regarding the cost of chips produced in the U.S.

9.How does TSMC’s presence impact the economies of the countries where it operates?
TSMC’s presence typically results in economic benefits for the host countries, including job creation, infrastructure development, and technological advancements.

10.What is the future outlook for TSMC, and how might it impact the global tech industry?
TSMC’s expansion continues to be a dynamic and evolving story. The company’s future direction will significantly influence the global tech industry, supply chain dynamics, and geopolitical relations.

For the latest updates and insights, follow this unfolding narrative, where technology, diplomacy, and economics converge in the world of semiconductors.

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